Synthesis of Phenanthridine - Increasing Reaction Yields Using Microwave Irradiation

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Introduction

Microwave irradiation (MWI) has been used extensively in organic synthesis.1 It is perhaps best known for its ability to speed up chemical reactions and increase product yields. This is a particularly interesting phenomenon when MWI achieves these increases while under the same conditions (same temperature, time, and pressure) as the conventional heating method.2 Microwave heating differs from conventional heating methods in that it heats from the inside out, rather than the outside in, as with conductive or convective methods. Thus, MWI directly activates the precursor molecules as dielectric energy is transferred to any polar or ionic species much faster than conventional heating methods. This rapid energy exchange leads to faster rates and often higher yields with greater purity.