Microwave chemistry has long been known to accelerate chemical transformations and provide a simple means to access more rigorous reaction conditions. Flow chemistry has demonstrated similar benefits, with the added bonus of being able to increase the reaction scale simply by prolonging the reaction. The combination of the two technologies opens the door to a quick optimization and easy scale-up of virtually unlimited types of chemical transformations. The Discover® SP System provides the means to perform both types of reactions simultaneously or sequentially within the same system. Use of microwave heating allowed access to a temperature of 190 °C, well above the boiling point of acetonitrile. This increased temperature resulted in a pressure of nearly 200 psi during the batch reaction. Despite these forcing conditions, the reaction proved suitable for synthesis in flow, providing a modest increase in yield with a 20-fold increase in scale.

Discover 10-mL and 80-mL Flow Cells

10-mL and 80-mL Flow Cells

Explore continuous flow chemistry in the microwave using two standard flow cell sizes.

MAX. PRESSURE: 18 bar (250 psi)

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Table 1: Heck Reagents Required

Reagent Batch Flow
Iodobenzene 0.101 g 2.02 g
Butyl acrylate 0.127 g 2.54 g
Pd(OAc)2 0.06 mg 1.2 mg
DIPEA 0.096 g 1.92 mg
MeCN 1 mL 20 mL

Table 2: Heck Coupling Conditions

Mode Temperature Time Scale Isolated Yield
Batch 190 °C 5 minutes 0.5 mmol 89%
Flow 190 °C 30 minutes 10 mmol 91%

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  1. 10 mL flow cell attenuator and vessel top Learn More
  2. 80 mL flow cell attenuator and vessel top Learn More

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